Code Basics

MUSH 101's first instructional lecture. Recommended for anyone who has an interest in learning to code or build.

Author: Trispis@M*U*S*H
Category: Softcode
Functions: get(), owner(), u().
Compatibility: PennMUSH.

MUSHCode for Code Basics

Topic: Code Basics
Author: Trispis
Summary: MUSH 101's first instructional lecture. Recommended for anyone
who has an interest in learning to code or build.


Trispis begins his lecture...

Trispis says, "Welcome to MUSH 101's first official online class."

Trispis says, "I will be your instructor for this class."

Trispis says, "My name is Trispis."

Trispis says, "You may call me Trispis."

Trispis says, "If you don't have a pencil and a few sheets of paper handy,
please go get them now. I won't be making you write essays, but I will be
pointing out some useful commands or help files that are worth keeping handy
(humor me... get a pencil and paper). I'll wait 2 minutes before continuing,
for those who wish to go get these supplies."

Trispis clears his throat, then continues, "The title of today's lesson is
'Code Basics: tools of the trade'.

Trispis says, "We will be learning the basic skills for looking at, writing,
and modifying code. I suppose the most important thing, though, will be the
language skills you'll be exposed to here. Coding and discussing code involve
some terms and abbreviations which are fairly standard on most MU*'s. In
today's lesson, you'll be exposed to all of the basic terms of the coding

Trispis says, "By the end of the class, we will have covered the basic
concepts which comprise the greater part of coding... AND... by the end of the
class you will have applied many of these concepts in the creation of an
object (yes, you actually get to make something today). The stuff we do today
should prepare you to do some code either on your own or with a little
guidance from an experienced coder (without feeling horribly selfconscious or

Trispis says, "At times, the class may seem to move very quickly. At other
times, it might seem to move too slowly. Either way, please follow the
guidelines for orderliness in the classroom. This will allow everyone the
opportunity to ask questions and receive answers in an organized fashion."

Trispis says, "Are there any questions before we begin? (please use the +code
channel when asking questions)"

Trispis says, "If there are no questions, let's get to work. (:"

Trispis says, "First things first. The 'help' files for PennMUSH are cryptic
and incomprehensible. We will be using them a lot. (evil grin)"

Trispis says, "A great deal of my purpose today is to assist you in
understanding the way PennMUSH's help files are written. Therefore, each time
I introduce a new command or subject, if it is listed in 'help', I will use
that help file as our working model."

Trispis says, "The first two things we need to learn are the commands which
allow us to look at code."

Trispis says, "They are: 'brief' and 'examine'"

Trispis says, "Because 'brief' is the least powerful of the two, we will look
at it first."

Trispis says, "Please type (and read): help brief"

Trispis says, "Note two things about this help file."

Trispis says, "First... note the first two words of the file are: brief

Trispis says, "This is the SYNTAX of the 'brief' command. That is to say, it
is how you type the command when you want to use it (syntax). Almost all of
PennMUSH's help files give you the syntax first. Look for it. As you gain
experience, it might be all you need to remind you how a command works. (:"

Trispis says, "Note the way the word <object> is surrounded by <>'s. What this
means is that you need to provide this information."

Trispis says, "An <object> can be any one of the following things:

the name of an object in your inventory
the name of an object in your same location
the name of a player in your same location
the name, or a valid alias, of an exit
your name
me (a valid reference to yourself)
here (a valid reference to your current location)
any #dbref (a database reference number)

Trispis says, "When we enter an <object>, we don't include the <>'s."

Trispis says, "Note: I will discuss object TYPES later."

Trispis says, "The second thing this help file refers to is its relationship
with 'examine'."

Trispis says, "'brief' and 'examine' are partners in crime. ... er... code."

Trispis says, "We will look at 'examine' in a moment. For now, though, let's
see what sort of information the 'brief' command gives us..."

Trispis says, "Type: brief me"

------ DO THIS ---- ^^^^^^^^

Trispis says, "Woohoo. Look at all that juicy information. (:"

Trispis says, "I'll give you a moment to look at it, then I'll discuss some of
the key points of interest."

Trispis says, "We'll talk about all of these things eventually, but for now
please take notice of the following things in this display..."

Trispis says, "At the very top, your name..."

Trispis says, "...followed by some stuff in parentheses (<a number><some

Trispis says, "The number is /your/ #dbref (database reference number)."

Trispis says, "The letters are your flags (which are also listed in word-form
on the next line of the display, right underneath). We'll talk about flags

<Code> Erinstar says, "I cant do 'brief me'"

<Code> Trispis hrms.

<Code> Trispis says, "Try: br me"

<Code> Erinstar says, "That worked :)"

<Code> Trispis says, "Good. (:"

Trispis continues...

Trispis says, "Moving downward through the display, we also see these other

Owner (again, your name should be here) Flags (in word form)
Zone (should be *NOTHING*) Credits (MUSH "money" for building and creating)
Locks (if you have locks besides a Basic one, they'll be here, too)
Powers (you should see: Builder)
Channels (all channels you're on. you should see at least: Freshmen)
Warnings checked (some MUSH stuff you'll probably never use)
Created (the date and time that your character was created)
Carrying (objects you are carrying - i.e., your 'inventory')
Home (Where your character is linked into the database. #0 is valid)
Location (Where you currently are. Here. Classroom 1101)

Trispis says, "Later in the class I'll refer to a few more of these things.
For now, though, let's move onward to 'examine' (brief's partner)."

Trispis says, "Read: help examine"

examine[/<switch>] <object>[/<attribute>]

Displays all available information about <object>. <object> may be an
object, 'me' or 'here'. You must control the object to examine it. If
you do not own the object, or it is not visible, you will just see the
name of the object's owner. May be abbreviated 'ex <object>'. If the
attribute parameter is given, you will only see that attribute (good
for looking at code). You can now wild-card match on attributes. For
example. to see all the attributes that began with a 'v' you could do
ex <object>/v*

Examine takes three switches, "brief" (equivalent to the "brief" command),
"debug", which is a wizard-only switch, and "mortal". "debug" examine
will show the raw values for certain fields in an object. "mortal"
examine will show an object as if you were a mortal and not the object's
owner. It's primarily useful to admins.

<Code> Higs says, "I don't have Builder listed under Powers."

<Code> Erinstar says, "me either."

<Code> Trispis says, "Good point. Builder is not required in our current
configuration. Some MUSHes require it, though."

<Code> Higs says, "Ah."

<Code> Trispis says, "Everyone ready to move on to 'examine'?"

<Code> Higs nods.

<Code> Calico says, "Aye!"

<Code> Trispis says, "Okay... type: help examine"

Trispis says, "First thing to note is its syntax is somewhat cryptic looking."

Trispis says, "Note stuff right after the word 'examine' at the top of the
screen. Something like this...

examine[/<switch>] <object>[/<attribute>]

Trispis says, "This is the most confusing part of PennMUSH's help system...
the syntax. Let's walk through examine's syntax a step at a time..."

Trispis says, "First, we have the command itself: examine"

Trispis says, "Nothing particularly difficult here."

Trispis says, "Next we have: [/<switch>]"

Trispis says, "Okay... this is our introduction to 'optional' information in
command syntax. In PennMUSH's help syntax, the square brackets denote
'optional' information that the command will accept. (Note right now,
though... In actual coding, the square brackets serve a different purpose,
which I will discuss toward the end of the class. For now, though, just note
that they are used in this manner in the help SYNTAX.)"

Trispis says, "Look at the last paragraph of 'help examine'. It says, 'Examine
takes three switches...' and explains them a bit. The thing to note here is
that only /one/ of these switches applies to mortals (you). That switch is:
/brief ... which, as they explain, is the same as the 'brief' command. So...
in our study of 'brief' and 'examine', we have the convenience of being able
to ignore switches for the moment (Whew! Aren't you glad?). We'll apply some
switches later, but for now, let's proceed with 'examine'."

Trispis says, "I've probably spammed 'help examine' off the screen. And, since
I've got more to discuss about this file before we use the command, it's
probably a good idea to get the help file back onscreen. So, again type: help

Trispis says, "We're still studying the syntax...

examine[/<switch>] <object>[/<attribute>]

Trispis says, "After the optional [/<switch], we see <object>. We've already
covered the basics of what is considered valid input for an <object>, so the
only thing I'll say this time is that the examine command requires an <object>
(i.e., <object> is /not/ optional)."

Trispis says, "After the (required) <object>, we see another optional
parameter (a parameter is some defining element of a command... it's no big
deal, it's just a fancy word)... [/<attribute>]."

Trispis says, "Again, I remind you that square brackets in help syntax
indicate optional parameters (coders use these fancy fancy words, so get used
to them)."

Trispis says, "Okay... what about this [/<attribute>] thing... What is it?
(That's a rhetorical question. I know what it is. (; Heh.)"

Calico giggles.

Trispis says, "Well... I guess the way to learn this stuff is to do it, so
let's back up a bit and go through this a step at a time until we're back
where we are (confused? good. it'll make sense in a minute... I just need to
get your momentum built up)..."

Trispis says, "Do: brief me"

Trispis says, "Now, do: examine/brief me"

Trispis says, "Note: the above two commands are, as the help files indicated,

Trispis says, "Now do: examine me (without the /brief switch)"

Trispis says, "Yeehaw! Look at the spam. (:"

Trispis says, "Okay... What just happened is... examine showed you /everything
you can see/ about your character's code."

Trispis says, "This is where the [/<attribute>] switch comes in real handy. (:
Try this, next... type: examine me/describe"

Trispis says, "Note: This time, the only thing returned was your 'describe'

Trispis says, "Thus, you can examine individual attributes separately by
specifying a /<attribute>. This is very useful when you have lots of
attributes on an object."

Trispis says, "Okay... a couple more things, then I'll take some questions
before moving on to other subjects."

Trispis says, "First... both 'brief' and 'examine' have abbreviations (coders
are lazy)."

Trispis says, "Although PennMUSH is sufficiently developed to accept just
about any number of the first few letters of a command, it isn't wise to get
too lazy. So, I'll recommend the following abbreviations...

for 'brief', use 'br' (example: br me)
for 'examine', use 'ex' (example: ex me/describe)."

Trispis says, "Okay. The last thing about 'examine', before taking questions,
is... wildcards. The help file mentioned this, so let's read it again. Type:
help examine"

Trispis says, "Near the end of the first paragraph, it says 'You can now
wild-card match on attributes.' and gives you an example."

Trispis says, "There are two valid wildcards in PennMUSH. One is the asterisk
(*). The other is the question mark (?). The asterisk replaces any combination
of characters, and the question mark replaces any single character. They may
be used individually or in combination."

Trispis says, "Examples...."

Trispis says, "ex me/des* (this would look for any attribute names beginning
with 'des'... like: describe, descent, desk, destination, dessert, etc... and
list anything and/or everything it finds)"

Trispis says, "ex me/?ouse (this would look for any attribute names that are
five characters in length and end in 'ouse'... like: house, mouse, louse (but
not grouse or firehouse)... and list anything and/or everything it finds)"

Trispis says, "ex me/p?s* (this would look for any attribute names that begin
with 'p', followed by any single character (but /not/ 'nothing'), followed by
's', followed by anything (including 'nothing')... like: pos, position, past,
pass, p1s, p_set, etc... and list anything and/or everything it finds)."

Trispis says, "We'll see the benefit of wildcards a bit later, but for now I
have simply explained them for your information (FYI)."

Trispis says, "Also, FYI (For Your Information)... if you use both the /brief
switch and an /<attribute>, you'll only get the attribute (without the /brief
information). So, the /brief switch is pretty much useless... use the 'brief'
command if you want that information, and use 'examine' if you want attribute

Trispis says, "It's time for questions... please use the +code channel."

<Code> Morpheus says, "Understood perfectly questions from me."

<Code> Higs says, "When we ask questions, are we supposed to just blurt them
out on this channel, or raise our hand and then blurt them out?"

<Code> Trispis says, "Blurting is acceptible on this channel. (:"

<Code> Higs says, "OK. That's my only question."

<Code> Erinstar says, "Why is coding so complicated :)"

Higs resists the urge to shoot a spit wad at Erinstar.
Morpheus cackles.

<Code> Trispis grins. Because they made the 'help files' so complicated. (:
And... I'm getting ready to simplify it for you in the next portion of the
lecture. (:

<Code> Trispis says, "If there are no more questions, I'll get back to the

<Code> Trispis continues the lecture.

Trispis says, "Okay... Believe it or not, we've already mastered one of the
hardest parts of coding: reading the PennMUSH help syntax."

Trispis says, "Although there are still a few details left to discuss about
syntax, we are now prepared to read and, for the most part, understand help

Trispis says, "And since we have achieved this mastery of syntax, let's take
advantage of it."

Trispis says, "It's time for you to take some notes (dig out that pencil and

Trispis says, "On your paper, I want you to write a few specific help files
(I'll tell you which ones in a moment) and some notes for each one (which I
shall also provide). First, though, I want to relate a personal perspective on
the PennMUSH help system. Keep those pencils and paper ready, but don't write
anything until and unless I instruct you to do so."

Trispis says, "When I was first learning MUSH code, the most frustrating
aspect of the process was mastering the online help files."

Trispis says, "It was so frustrating, in fact, that I gave up on trying to
learn it online... and I printed out hardcopies of each and every individual
help file. I then arranged them according to the structured online 'help
menus'. It wasn't until I had done this that I began to understand the way
they were organized. Up until that point, I was /wasting/ a great deal of time
hunting for a specific file."

Trispis says, "So, what I would like to do now is to give you the benefit of
my tedious efforts without forcing you to go through the weeks and weeks of
work that I did."

Trispis says, "That is, I'm going to tell you... in a way most of you will
understand... exactly how the online help files are arranged."

Trispis says, "When you think of these files the way I'm about to describe
them, you'll have a much better feel for how to find the file you're looking

Trispis says, "If you've been taking notes about this class so far, that's
great. But, now, I want you to start with a clean sheet of paper for the
things I'm about to tell you. Later on, you'll be able to refer to this piece
of paper as a 'quick reference' guide for the online help. (Note: If I start
some comment with 'Note:', it means 'pay attention and remember'. If I say
'Write this', it means to write it down on paper.)"

Trispis says, "Note: The PennMUSH help screens were written with the 'Telnet'
(or TinyFugue) user in mind. The screens have (usually) less than 20 lines of
text. (A TinyFugue screen usually has 3 lines of input at the bottom, a
dividing line, and 20 or 21 lines of output at the top. This is because the
old monochrome monitors had a total of 24 or 25 lines on the screen)."

Trispis says, "Note (continued): So, all of PennMUSH's help files are fairly
brief. Keep this in mind when I refer to several files together. They can be
considered a group of some sort, but they are /still/ individual files (of
under 20 lines)."

Trispis says, "Now, write this at the top of your paper (yes. write this)

My PennMUSH HELP Quick Reference


Trispis says, "Now, leave a blank line under that and then write the following


Trispis says, "(yes, write all of this. I'll give you time.)


0---help ... Main Index or Directory (instructions & 1-4 below)

1---help code ... A Foreword (notes about PennMUSH)

2---help topics ... A Subdirectory (a list of files about code concepts)

3-+-help commands ... A Subdirectory (WHO, look, etc. & a-d below)

a-help @-ATTRIBUTES ... A list of @commands for setting attributes

b-help @-BUILDING ... A list of @commands used in building

c-help @-GENERAL ... A list of general purpose @commands

d-help @-WIZARD ... A list of Wizard-only @commands

4---help entries ... A Master Index (EVERY help topic)


<Code> Alan says, "That does explain it very well."

<Code> Calico nods.

<Code> Trispis says, "When you're ready to proceed, please say so on the
channel and I'll tally everyone up. (:"

<Code> Higs says, "Ready."

<Code> Calico says, "Ready."

<Code> Tark says, "Ready."

<Code> Trispis says, "Is anyone /not/ ready?"

<Code> Morpheus says, "Ready."

<Code> Fragment says, "Ready"

<Code> Fletcher says, "ready"

<Code> Erinstar says, "Ready."

<Code> Trispis continues...

Trispis says, "Now, put this piece of paper aside (but keep it in view). I'll
be having you add a few things to it later, but for now I want to look at the
things we already have on it."

Trispis says, "First, let's look at the 'help' screen. Type: help"

This is the MUSH online help facility.

Notes on help descriptions:
[text] - Text enclosed in []'s is optional. The []'s are never typed
in as part of the command.
<parameter> - Information parameter for a command. The <>'s are
never typed in as part of the command.
Syntax of help command:
help [<command>]

To get a list of MUSH topics: To get a list of MUSH Commands:
help topics help commands
To get information about PennMUSH: To get a list of help entries:
help code help entries

If there are any errors in the help text, please notify a wizard
in the game, or send mail to

All commands listed in this file might not apply to all mushes running
this code. This is because some of the commands/effects can be enabled or
disabled by the site admin of your MUSH. If a command is not available
AND it is documented, ask your site admin why it isn't enabled.
You may use the "@config" command to see the MUSH configuration.

Trispis says, "Note that it contains exactly what I summarized. Instructions
on using help and references to the other four help files (1-4 on your

NOTE: PennMUSH's main 'help' screen was revamped shortly after this
lecture. Thus, the current help screen most likely looks like this:

This is the index to the MUSH online help files.

For an explanation of the help system, type: help newbie

For the list of MUSH commands, type: help commands
For the list of MUSH topics, type: help topics
For an alphabetical list of all help entries: help entries
For information about PennMUSH: help code

For a list of flags: help flag list
For a list of functions: help function list
For a list of attributes: help attribute list
To see the configuration of this MUSH: @config

On many MUSHes, list local commands with: +help

If there are any errors in the help text, please notify a wizard
in the game, or send mail to

NOTE: Net changes include the addition of the 'help newbie' section,
which explains some of the syntax and usage of the help system, and the
help sections on flags, functions, attributes, the @config command, and
reference to +help. The remainder of this lecture, however, still applies
to the overall PennMUSH help system.

Trispis says, "Note also that it uses the same 'syntax' we've learned from
'brief' and 'examine' (example: help <topic>)."

Trispis says, "Next, let's look at 'help code'. Type: help code"

Trispis says, "Note that it, too, contains exactly what I summarized. (I have
read the MUSH Manual that they refer to. It is very useful. In fact, I
strongly recommend that everyone go and get it after completing this class.)"

Trispis says, "Now, before we go any further... I'm going to jump out of
sequence... BUT (LISTEN UP, GANG) ... We're not going to look at /all/ of the
'help entries'... this set of files is about 20 or 30 screens long! We don't
have time for that... We will only look at the /first/ screen of this
sequence... just so you'll see how it's laid out. Type: help entries (at the
bottom of the screen it will say 'For more, see Entries-2'. DO NOT DO THIS!!!
I will NOT wait for those who get behind because they have spammed themselves
with the rest of those help files!!!). So, please just follow instructions and
type: help entries"

" & +
1.50dune1 1.50dune2 1.50p10
1.50p11 1.50p12 1.50p13
1.50p14 1.50p6 1.50p7
1.50p8 1.50p9 1.6.0p0
: ; @-attributes
@-building @-general @-wizard
@@ @aahear @aclone
@aconnect @adeath @adescribe
@adestroy @adisconnect @adrop
@aefail @aenter @afailure
@ahear @aleave @alias
@allhalt @allquota @amhear
@amove @apayment @asuccess
@atport @atrchown @atrlock
@ause @away @boot
@cemit @channel @channel2
@channel3 @channel4 @charges
@chat @chown @chownall

For more, see hlp Entries-2

Trispis says, "The 'help entries' sequence lists EVERY help entry in the
PennMUSH help database. Very boring reading."

Trispis says, "Okay... The only remaining main help topic (from 1-4 on your
paper) is 'help commands'."

Trispis says, "Type: help commands"

Trispis says, "Note once again that this file contains exactly what I

Help is available for the following MUSH Commands:

ahelp anews brief DOING drop
examine enter events get give
goto index kill leave LOGOUT
look move news page pose
QUIT read rpage rules RWHO
say score slay take think
use whisper WHO
" : ; & +

In addition to these, there are '@' commands. @-commands usually are
commands which can modify and affect the database in substantial ways.
There are several types of '@' commands. The following help entries
list available '@' commands:


<Code> Higs says, "Is there anyway to use wild-cards with help entries?"
<Code> Trispis says, "The PennMUSH help system accepts partial
name-matching... example: help @desc (instead of @describe)."

Trispis says, "You are probably familiar with most of the commands listed
here, having used them quite frequently."

Trispis says, "Note, also, at the bottom of this screen are listed the four
additional topics I mentioned (a-d on your paper)."

Trispis says, "Okay, gang. Hang in there just a bit longer. Only four more
help screens to look at and then we start coding. (Woohoo!)"

Calico applauds. :)

Trispis says, "Let's look at these in order. First, type: help @-attributes"

Trispis says, "Before moving on to the others, I'd like to say a few things
about @-attributes."

'@' commands which are attribute-related set game-defined attributes.

These are:
@aahear @aclone @aconnect @adeath @adescribe
@adisconnect @aefail @aenter @afailure @ahear
@aleave @amhear @amove @apayment @asuccess
@atport @ause @away @charges @cost
@death @describe @drop @ealias @efail
@enter @failure @filter @haven @idescribe
@idle @infilter @inprefix @lalias @leave
@listen @move @odeath @odescribe @odrop
@oefail @oenter @ofailure @oleave @omove
@opayment @osuccess @otport @ouse @oxenter
@oxleave @oxtport @payment @prefix @runout
@sex @startup @success @tport @use

Trispis says, "Note the first line of this screen says...

'@' commands which are attribute-related set game-defined attributes.

Technically, the things on this screen are "@commands" which set attributes on
objects (players, things, rooms, or exits). Some of them apply only to
players, others only have practical application on exits, and so on and so
forth. The point is that they are _@commands_ which set _attributes_ on
_objects_, and the attribute they set has the same name as the @command which
sets it.

Example: @describe me=Tall, dark, and handsome.

This sets an attribute called 'describe' on 'me' containing the text 'Tall,
dark, and handsome'. This may seem confusing right now, but it will eventually
clear up as we move on to the other @-topics (b-d on your paper)."

Trispis says, "Next let's look at help @-building. Type: help @-building"

These '@' commands are building related (they modify the database):

@atrlock @atrchown @chown @chzone @clone
@cpattr @create @destroy @dig @elock
@eunlock @firstexit @link @lock @mvattr
@name @nuke @open @parent @recycle
@set @undestroy @ulock @unlink @unlock
@uunlock @wipe

Trispis says, "Note the first line of this screen says in parentheses '(they
modify the database)'. Heh. Well.. I have news for you... all of the commands
in the previous screen modify the database, too. But, these are more along the
lines of ownership, order, and control of the database information (i.e., the
object they are applied to)."

Trispis says, "Okay... Once again, I'm going to jump out of sequence (saving
the best for last. heh-heh.) The commands in 'help @-wizard' are wizard-only
commands. At this point, we have no use for them. Nonetheless, I expect you
want to see them, so go ahead and type: help @-wizard"

Trispis says, "Since we won't be using any of these commands today, I won't
waste any time discussing them. Just know that they are wizard-only commands."

These '@' commands are only usable by wizards or privileged players:

@allhalt @allquota @boot @chownall @chzoneall
@comment @dbck @disable @dump @enable
@fixdb @hide @kick @log @motd
@newpassword @pcreate @poll @poor @power
@purge @quota @readcache @rejectmotd @shutdown
@sitelock @squota @toad @uptime @wall
@wallemit @wallpose @wizemit @wizmotd @wizpose
@wizwall cd

Trispis says, "Now for the good stuff.... the stuff we use in coding (which we
will actually be using very soon). Type: help @-general"

Trispis says, "Note it says right at the top of this file...

'These '@' commands are general utilities and programming commands'

...and that's exactly what they are."

Trispis says, "Some of you have probably used a few of the @commands on this
list (examples: @emit and @pemit). For those of you who haven't, you'll get
your chance in just a moment (a small exercise coming up). It's important to
note that all of the @commands listed in all four of these groups each has its
own help file to explain its usage."

Trispis says, "There is one last 'list' we need to look at. Then, we can start
coding. After we look this over, we will begin a small coding project. Please
don't lose patience now, because it's going to get interesting in just a few
minutes. So, let's look at: help flag list"

Trispis says, "Type: help flag list"

Trispis says, "This is a list of the standard PennMUSH flags."

Flag Title Flag Title Flag Title
A - Abode, Ansi C - Chown_Ok, Color D - Dark
E - Exit (type) F - Floating, Fixed G - Going
H - Haven I - Inherit J - Jump_Ok, Judge
L - Link_Ok M - Monitor N - Nospoof, No_Tel, No_Leave
O - Opaque P - Player (type) Q - Quiet
R - Room (type) S - Sticky U - Unfindable
V - Visual W - Wizard X - Safe
Z - Zone, Z_Tel

a - Audible b - Debug c - Connected, Cloudy
d - Destroy_Ok e - Enter_Ok f - Force_White
g - Gagged h - Halt j - Jury_Ok
l - Light m - Myopic n - No_Command
o - On-Vacation p - Puppet r - Royalty
s - Suspect t - Transparent u - Uninspected
v - Verbose w - No_Warn x - Terse
z - Startup ? - Unregistered
Some flags may not be enabled on some MUSHes.

Trispis says, "Note it tells you that some flags may not be enabled."

Trispis says, "Most of them will be. (:"

<Code> Trispis says, "This concludes the lecture portion. It's a good time to
cut class, if you've got somewhere else to go."

<Code> Trispis says, "Are there any questions before we proceed to the lab
portion of this class?"

<Code> Morpheus says, "Will I still need wordpad--err, my pencil and paper"

<Code> Trispis doesn't think so.

<Code> Trispis takes a short (2 min) break to refill his tea glass and go to
the little teachers room.

<Code> Calico grins.

<Code> Trispis returns, relieved and refreshed. (:

<Code> Trispis says, "Is everyone ready?"

<Code> Calico says, "Ready. :)"

<Code> Higs nods.

<Code> Morpheus says, "Ready.."

<Code> Fragment says, "Ready"

<Code> Alan nods.

<Code> Trispis continues.

Trispis says, "The remainder of this class is being manually typed (no
script). If you have questions, continue to use +code."

Trispis says, "The first command I only want you to use /once/ (excessive use
of it will create clutter)."

From afar, <Trispis's Alt> froze on the other screen. I've got to reboot. Tell
them I'll be back in 5 min... smoke a cigarette or something.
You paged <Trispis's Alt> with 'K.'.
Trispis has disconnected.
GAME: Trispis has disconnected.
Tark eeps.
You say, "Trispis needs to Reboot... so... everyone take a wee break."
Tark wees in the corner.
Morpheus says, "Darn, we lost another sub.... .... ... next ;)"
Higs raises an eyebrow.
Elocin goes to the desk and takes a whole pad of hall passes..
Morpheus slides his straw and wadded up pieces of paper back into his robe
Calico takes her own advice and a break. :)
Higs taps his pencil on his desk.
Elocin sneaks back to her desk.
GAME: Trispis has connected.
Trispis has connected.
Calico grins.

Trispis says, "Sorry. Had a technical problem."

Trispis says, "The first command can create clutter. Please only use it once."

Trispis says, "Read: help @create"

@create <name> [=<cost>]. Creates a thing with the specified name.
Creation costs either <cost> pennies or 10 pennies, whichever is
greater. The value of a thing is proportional to its cost. To be
exact, value=(cost/5)-1. Value cannot be greater than 100, any
values that would be greater than 100 are rounded down to 100.
(see give re: greed)

Trispis says, "Note the optional [=<cost>] parameter and the comments about

Trispis says, "Ignore it."

<Code> Higs says, "What if we've already created an object on here before? How
do we find out the database reference number without being in the same room?"

<Code> Trispis says, "Create a new one."

<Code> Trispis says, "But, do it according to my instructions."

Trispis says, "We're going to create a 'Lab Project'.... as follows... type

@create Lab Project

Trispis says, "Now, if you do 'brief me', you'll see a 'Lab Project' in your

Trispis says, "It's probably a good idea to write down the #dbref of your lab
project ... somewhere on your notepaper."

<Code> Higs says, "Can you brief someone else to see what they're carrying?"

Calico scribbles.

<Code> Trispis says, "Only if they don't have the 'opaque' flag set on

<Code> Calico says, "Right."

<Code> Trispis says, "Then, you can only see the objects they carry that don't
have DARK flags on them."

<Code> Trispis says, "If the other player has the VISUAL flag on them, you can
'brief' and 'examine' them just as if you /were/ them."

<Code> Trispis returns to the exercise.

Trispis says, "Let's give our lab projects descriptions... do: help @describe"

@describe <object> [=<description>]. <object> can be a thing,
player, exit, or room, specified as <name> or #<number> or 'me' or
'here'. This sets the description a player sees when they use the
command 'look <object>'. Without a description argument, it clears
the message. It can be abbreviated @desc. @desc's on everything
that isn't dark is considered to be Good Building Practice.

Trispis says, "This time, we need to pay close attention to the optional

Trispis says, "Without the optional description, it clears any existing

Trispis says, "Also note that this command can be abbreviated '@desc'."

Calico's Lab Project/DESCRIBE - Set.

Trispis says, "so, let's put something on our projects... do this...

@describe lab project=My Lab Project. I am very proud of this.

Trispis says, "Okay... up to this point, I've discussed 'flags'... we'll be
learning flags in about 15 minutes, but first I want to re-introduce our
'Quick Reference' for the PennMUSH help..."

Trispis says, "Look at your paper (or type: help)."

Trispis says, "Then type: help topics"

Help available on the following Topics:


Trispis says, "Note the entry 'NON-STANDARD ATTRIBUTES'."

Trispis says, "Type: help non-standard attributes"

Objects now have the capability of having an unlimited number of
attributes. These attributes can have any name. In order to preserve
backward compatibility, the VA-VZ, WA-WZ, and XA-XZ attributes still
exist in their previous form, and are set like a normal attribute.
To set a new style attribute, you use the form
&<attribute name> <obj> = <value> OR
@_<attribute_name> <obj> = <value> OR
@set <obj> = <attribute_name>:<value>
All attributes have the ability to be used in attribute locks (see help
@lock). Attributes also have the new ability to be 'owned' independent
of object ownership (see help ATTRIB-OWNERSHIP). All attributes
can be addressed in get() as well as in edit, and %-substitute form,
as well as accessed via the V-function.

Trispis says, "The only thing we are concerned about at this time is that we
can set our own attributes in the form...

&<attrib-name> <obj>=<value>

And, note that there cannot be any spaces in an attribute name (underscores
and hyphens are okay, but no spaces)."

Trispis says, "Another shortcut for coding is to use the #dbref instead of the
name (saves typing)."

Trispis says, "so, put an attribute on your lab project (using the
non-standard format and the #dbref instead of the name)... like this...

&test-attribute #<your lab project's dbref>=Woohoo!

Trispis says, "You should get a response confirming that you have done this."

Calico's Lab Project/TEST - Set.

Trispis says, "Something like: Lab Project/TEST_ATTRIBUTE - Set."

Trispis says, "Okay... another help file from 'help topics'"


Trispis says, "type: help user-defined commands"


User-defined commands can be created by setting $comands on objects.
These are set using &<attrib> <object>=$<command pattern>:<actions>. If
something a user types matches the command pattern, the actions are
executed. In order to execute a $command, you must pass the object's
uselock. Otherwise, you will get a "Permission denied." message.

Any number of *'s and ?'s may be in the command pattern. A * matches
any number of characters, and a ? matches any single character. When
the actions are executed, the values on the stack in %0-%9 are the
portions of what the user types that match the first ten *'s or ?'s.
To use a : in a command pattern, escape it with a \.

For example, to make a 'wave' command, you could do the following, where
<object> is an object in your inventory:
&do-wave <object>=$wave *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0.}
You could then type:
> wave Guest
Rhyanna waves to Guest.


Trispis says, "It says a bunch of stuff about stack values and substitutions
and what-have-you. Ignore that for now. Just look down to their example...

&do-wave <object>=$wave *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0.}

Trispis says, "don't do this yet."

Trispis says, "I want to identify all of the portions of the syntax."

Trispis says, "Remember our earlier syntax for non-standard attributes...

&<attr-name> <obj>=<value>

Well, I'm going to discuss the <value> portion..."

Trispis says, "$wave *:@force owner(me)={:waves to%0.}"

Trispis says, "Just so you'll understand the 'stack' and 'substitutions'
(without explaining them in detail, I'm going to modify this slightly..."

Trispis says, "$wave * *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0 and says, "%1"}"

Trispis says, "The %0 is replaced by the first * ... the %1 is replaced by the
second *"

Trispis says, "The command @force does exactly what it says... it forces ...
let's read 'help @force'"

@force <player/object>=<command>. Forces the game to act as though
<player/object> had entered <command>. Only wizards may force
players. May be abbreviated @fo. Wizards cannot be forced by
players. Hard luck. You can always force objects you control, and
will probably use this command to manipulate puppets.
An abbreviated form of this command is simply "<#dbref> <command>".

Trispis says, "So, What this 'user-defined attribute' has done is... It has
place @force inside of itself... and allows us (or will soon) to have our lab
project /force/ us to perform an action via a single command."

Trispis says, "The curly brackets ({}) identify the beginning and the end of
what that action will be."

Trispis says, "Here's the example again..."

Trispis says, "Here's my modified version...

&do-wave <object>=$wave * *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0 and says, "%1"}

<Code> Higs says, "We could put the attribute in ourselves instead of an
external object, right?"

<Code> Higs says, "I understand that we're doing this for a lab exercise, but
practicality-wise, this would be easier if done in ourselves instead of an
external object, right?"

<Code> Trispis says, "Actually, no."

<Code> Trispis says, "It's not wise to put code on your player."

<Code> Higs says, "Oh."

<Code> Trispis says, "There are problems that can arise down the road, if you

<Code> Higs says, "Ah."

<Code> Trispis says, "It has to do with security features."

Trispis says, "One more thing about the syntax of their example..."

Trispis says, "owner(me)"

Trispis says, "That is called a 'function'"

Trispis says, "I don't want to deal heavily with functions, but you can get a
list of them by typing: @config/functions"

Trispis says, "You can get help on individual functions by typing:

help <function-name>()

include the ()'s for best results."

<Code> Higs says, "Is that one of the uses of the dark flag? So you can put
code that you would put on yourself into an object that no one else can see?"

<Code> Calico says, "Dark makes the object invisible like."

<Code> Trispis says, "People can't see your code unless you have the visual
flag set on it (flags coming up in a moment)."

<Code> Higs says, "Er...I meant so that you could have an object with your
code in it that wouldn't show up in your inventory, which might not be

<Code> Trispis says, "Just hang tight, this will clear up when we learn

Trispis says, "Returning now to the original example, let's actually do

Trispis says, "Let's actually do this now...

&do-wave #<your lab project>=$wave *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0.}

Calico's Lab Project/DO-WAVE - Set.

Trispis says, "Once you've done this, type: wave Trispis"

Trispis says, "It shouldn't work."

Trispis says, "The first reason it won't work is because your lab project has
a flag on it that is preventing it from accepting commands..."

Trispis says, "do: help flag list"

Trispis says, "Note the lowercase 'n' stands for No_Command"

Trispis says, "type: help no_command"

Flag: NO_COMMAND (all types)

The NO_COMMAND flag disables the checking of $-commands on an object.
Most MUSHes will be configured to automatically set this flag on rooms
and players. The server runs faster when fewer objects are checked for
$-commands; thus, any object which does not have $-commands on it should
be set NO_COMMAND.

Trispis says, "Here's how we're going to fix this..."

Trispis says, "read: help @set"

@set <object>=[!]<flag>
@<pre-defined attribute> <object>=<value>
@set <object>=<attribute>:<value>
@set <object>/<attribute>=[!]<atrflag>

The first form sets (or unsets) a flag on <object>.
The second form sets a pre-defined attribute (such as MOVE, FAIL, etc.)
on <object>.
The third form sets an arbitrary attribute with <value> on <object>.

See "help @set2" for more.

Trispis says, "We only want to concern ourselves with the first syntax listed
at the top."

Trispis says, "The first sentence tells us that it sets or unsets a flag on

Trispis says, "Note that there is an optional parameter [!]."

Trispis says, "This is referred to as 'not'."

Trispis says, "That is, the exclamation point means 'not'."

Trispis says, "So, we want to do this...

@set #<lab project>=!no_command

Flag reset.

Trispis says, "Now, type: wave Trispis"

Trispis says, "It shouldn't work (still)."

Trispis says, "There's another flag we need to learn..."

Trispis says, "Do: help flag list"

Trispis says, "Note the uppercase 'I' stands for 'Inherit'."

Trispis says, "Read: help inherit"

Inherit is a security flag used to prevent objects without authorization
from using @force, @set, and @trigger on other objects.
Authorization is successful if:

1. The enactor is WIZARD.
2. The enactor's owner is INHERIT.
2. The enactor is INHERIT.
3. The target is not INHERIT.

Only INHERIT or WIZARD objects may force their owners. Players can
always @force, @set, and @trigger their objects.

Read "help Inherit2" for more.

Trispis says, "Note it says it prevents @force... And that's what we have in
our code."

Trispis says, "However, This file is not as intuitive as others... The absence
of this flag is what 'prevents' @force... It says this under the numbered list
... 'Only INHERIT ... objects may force their owners.'"

Higs waves to Trispis.

Trispis says, "So, we need to add the INHERIT flag to our project... as

@set #<lab project>=inherit

Trispis sees that Higs is moving quickly. (:

Higs grins.

Flag set.

Trispis says, "Now... Since Higs has proven to us that this works, It's time
for me to help anyone else with debugging (i.e., cleaning up any mistakes you
might have made)."

<Code> Higs says, "If I were to give my lab project to somebody, they could
then force me to wave?"

<Code> Trispis says, "At this point, yes."

Morpheus waves to trispis.

Fragment waves to trispis.

Trispis says, "If your project isn't functioning, page me and I'll look at

Higs looks around warily, making sure nobody steals his project and starts
making him do bad things.

Calico waves to Trispis.

Elocin waves to herself happily and stuffs.

Higs wonders if his project could be used to start a wave.

Morpheus waves to Trispis.

Morpheus grins.

Trispis says, "Okay... a few more things, then we'll call it quits for today."

Trispis says, "Higs asked about other people using his toy."

Higs wonders about the phrasing of that, but smiles politely anyway.

Trispis says, "We can prevent this with a lock... there are lots of files in
the 'help @lock'. We /do/ want to at least browse them all."

Trispis says, "so, type: help @lock (and 'help @lock2' and so on)... and pay
attention to the 'Ralph Melton' locks."

Trispis says, "We are currently using (as are many MUSHes) the extended lock

Trispis says, "i.e., the 'Ralph Melton' locks."

Trispis says, "The lock we are going to use is: @lock/use"

Fragment knows who Ralph Melton is :)

Trispis says, "This allows us to define who may use our toy. (:"

Trispis says, "Here's what we want to do next...

@lock/use #<lab project>==me

Please note there are /two/ equal signs... we are using what is referred to as
an 'is-lock' It means... only a thing that 'is me'... also note that when
locking an object 'me' refers to you, the player. In other code, it can refer
to the object containing the code. Don't concern yourself too much with this
now, just know that 'me' in a lock means your player."


Trispis says, "Now, to disappoint everyone..."

Trispis says, "We're done with code basics."

Higs raises an eyebrow.

Calico cheers?

Higs drops Lab Project.

Lab Project says, "Go ahead...try to use me. I dare ya."

Elocin laughs.

Calico giggles.

Higs grins.

Trispis says, "A few security tips... any object you create should be given a
home (read: help @link)"

Trispis says, "Plus, every object you create should be locked to you (the
basic lock: @lock <obj>=me) to prevent people from picking it up and walking
away with it."

Higs takes Lab Project.

Trispis says, "If you want to learn an added bonus, I'll show you a little

Fragment likes tricks.

Trispis says, "it's just a confusing little enticement to return for more

Morpheus will be at the next class without question anyway.

Trispis says, "Reset your &do-wave like this...

&do-wave #<lab proj>=$wave *:@force owner(me)={:waves to %0.

... if your client wrapped that, pretend that was all on one line."

Trispis says, "What that does is... It gets the contents of the

Calico's Lab Project/DO-WAVE - Set.

Higs waves to Trispis. Woohoo!

Trispis grins.

Morpheus waves to Trispis. Dork!

Trispis chuckles.

Morpheus sat himself in the corner with his dunce cap for a reason.

Morpheus waves to Trispis. Woohoo!